Vocabulary

Greenhouse Gas - CFCs

The mole fraction of various chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs).

(Note that for these definitions the GAW vocabulary redirects to the CF standard name table. For the full reference, please visit: http://cf-pcmdi.llnl.gov/documents/cf-standard-names/standard-name-table/22/cf-standard-name-table.html)

Specific Measurements:

CCl3F (trichlorofluoromethane, CFC-11) (mole_fraction_of_cfc11_in_air): Mole fraction is used in the construction mole_fraction_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y. The chemical formula of CFC11 is CFCl3. The IUPAC name for CFC11 is trichloro-fluoro-methane.

C2Cl3F3 (1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane, CFC-113) (mole_fraction_of_cfc113_in_air): Mole fraction is used in the construction mole_fraction_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y. The chemical formula of CFC113 is CCl2FCClF2. The IUPAC name for CFC113 is 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoro-ethane.

CCl2F2 (dichlorodifluoromethane, CFC-12) (mole_fraction_of_cfc12_in_air): Mole fraction is used in the construction mole_fraction_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y. The chemical formula of CFC12 is CF2Cl2. The IUPAC name for CFC12 is dichloro-difluoro-methane.

Greenhouse Gas terms for the IASOA data vocabulary are taken from the Global Atmosphere Watch Station Information System (GAWSIS). . For the full reference, please visit: http://gaw.empa.ch/gawsis/display.asp.

Greenhouse Gas - General

The mole fraction of various greenhouse gases.

(Note that for these definitions the GAW vocabulary redirects to the CF standard name table. For the full reference, please visit: http://cf-pcmdi.llnl.gov/documents/cf-standard-names/standard-name-table/22/cf-standard-name-table.html)

Specific Measurements:

CH4 (mole_fraction_of_methane_in_air): Mole fraction is used in the construction mole_fraction_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y.

CO2 (mole_fraction_of_carbon_dioxide_in_air): Mole fraction is used in the construction mole_fraction_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y.

N2O (mole_fraction_of_nitrous_oxide_in_air): Mole fraction is used in the construction mole_fraction_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y. The chemical formula of nitrous oxide is N2O.

CCl4 (mole_fraction_of_carbon_tetrachloride_in_air): Mole fraction is used in the construction mole_fraction_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y. The chemical formula of carbon tetrachloride is CCl4.

Radiometric terms for the IASOA data vocabulary are taken from the Global Atmosphere Watch Station Information System (GAWSIS). . For the full reference, please visit: http://gaw.empa.ch/gawsis/display.asp.

Aerosol - Anions, Inorganic

The Mass concentration  of various aerosols.

(Note that for these definitions the GAW vocabulary redirects to the CF standard name table. For the full reference, please visit: http://cf-pcmdi.llnl.gov/documents/cf-standard-names/standard-name-table/22/cf-standard-name-table.html)

Specific Measurements:

Nitrate (NO3-), total aerosol (mass_concentration_of_nitrate_dry_aerosol_in_air): Mass concentration means mass per unit volume and is used in the construction mass_concentration_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y. A chemical species denoted by X may be described by a single term such as 'nitrogen' or a phrase such as 'nox_expressed_as_nitrogen'. "Aerosol" means the suspended liquid or solid particles in air (except cloud droplets). Aerosol takes up ambient water (a process known as hygroscopic growth) depending on the relative humidity and the composition of the aerosol. "Dry aerosol" means aerosol without water. The chemical formula for the nitrate anion is NO3-.

Sulphate (SO4=), total (mass_concentration_of_sulfate_ambient_aerosol_in_air): Mass concentration means mass per unit volume and is used in the construction mass_concentration_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y. A chemical species denoted by X may be described by a single term such as 'nitrogen' or a phrase such as 'nox_expressed_as_nitrogen'. "Aerosol" means the suspended liquid or solid particles in air (except cloud droplets). "Ambient aerosol" is aerosol that has taken up ambient water through hygroscopic growth. The extent of hygroscopic growth depends on the relative humidity and the composition of the aerosol.

Sulphate (SO4=), corrected (mass_concentration_of_sulfate_dry_aerosol_in_air): Mass concentration means mass per unit volume and is used in the construction mass_concentration_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y. A chemical species denoted by X may be described by a single term such as 'nitrogen' or a phrase such as 'nox_expressed_as_nitrogen'. "Aerosol" means the suspended liquid or solid particles in air (except cloud droplets). Aerosol takes up ambient water (a process known as hygroscopic growth) depending on the relative humidity and the composition of the aerosol. "Dry aerosol" means aerosol without water. The chemical formula for the sulfate anion is SO4(2-).

Radiometric terms for the IASOA data vocabulary are taken from the Global Atmosphere Watch Station Information System (GAWSIS). . For the full reference, please visit: http://gaw.empa.ch/gawsis/display.asp.

Cloud Properties - Optical and Radiative Properties

Measurements of optical and radiative cloud properties.

Specific Measurements:


Cloud optical depth: Amount of light cloud droplets or ice particles prevent from passing through a column of atmosphere.

Cloud Properties - Microphysical and Chemical Properties

Measurements of various microphysical and chemical cloud properties.

Specific Measurements:

Backscattered radiation: The scattering of radiant energy into the hemisphere of space bounded by a plane normal to the direction of the incident radiation and lying on the same side as the incident ray.

Cloud condensation nuclei: Small particles (typically 0.0002 mm, or 1/100 th the size of a cloud droplet) about which cloud droplets coalesce.


Radiometric terms for the IASOA data vocabulary are taken from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program’s measurement vocabulary. For the full reference, please visit: http://www.arm.gov/measurements.

Cloud Properties - Microphysical

Measurements of various microphysical cloud properties.

Specific Measurements:

Backscattered radiation: The scattering of radiant energy into the hemisphere of space bounded by a plane normal to the direction of the incident radiation and lying on the same side as the incident ray.

Cloud condensation nuclei: Small particles (typically 0.0002 mm, or 1/100 th the size of a cloud droplet) about which cloud droplets coalesce.

Cloud droplet size: Linear size (e.g. radius or diameter) of a cloud particle

Cloud extinction: The removal of radiant energy from an incident beam by the process of cloud absorption and/or scattering.

Cloud ice particle: Particles made of ice found in clouds.

Cloud optical depth: Amount of light cloud droplets or ice particles prevent from passing through a column of atmosphere.

Cloud particle number concentration: The total number of cloud particles present in any given volume of air.

Cloud particle size distribution: The number of cloud particles present in any given volume of air within a specified size range, including liquid and ice.

Hydrometeor fall velocity: Fall velocity of hydrometeors (e.g. rain, snow, graupel, hail).

Hydrometeor Geometry: Measurements describing the geometry of hydrometeors, e.g. oblateness, diameters along different axes, volume, etc.

Hydrometeor image: Images of hydrometeors from which one can derive characteristics such as size and shape.

Hydrometeor optical properties: Optical properties of hydrometeors, including asymmetry factor, phase-function, single-scattering albedo, refractive index, scattering and absorption cross-sections, and backscatter fraction.

Hydrometeor phase: Hydrometeor phase such as liquid ice or mixed phase.

Hydrometeor size: The size of a hydrometeor, measured directly or derived from other measurements .

Hydrometeor Size Distribution: The number of hydrometeors observed in a given size range.

Ice nuclei: Small particles around which ice particles form.

Ice water content: The concentration (mass/vol) of ice water particles in a cloud.

Liquid water content: The concentration (mass/vol) of liquid water droplets in a cloud.

Liquid water path: A measure of the weight of the liquid water droplets in the atmosphere above a unit surface area on the earth, given in units of kg m-2.

Radar Doppler: The power spectrum and moments of the radar signal expressed as a function of Doppler frequency or Doppler velocity. It may be thought of as the reflectivity weighted radial velocity distribution of the scatterers in a distributed target.

Radar polarization: The temporal and geometric behavior of the electric field vector of an electromagnetic wave transmitted or received by a radar system, e.g. elliptical polarization, differential reflectivity, phase shift, co-polar correlation coefficient, linear depolarization ratio.

Radar reflectivity: A measure of the efficiency of a radar target in intercepting and returning radio energy. It depends upon the size, shape, aspect, and dielectric properties of that target.

Total cloud water: The total concentration (mass/vol) of ice and liquid water particles in a cloud; this includes condensed water content (CWC).

 

Radiometric terms for the IASOA data vocabulary are taken from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program’s measurement vocabulary. For the full reference, please visit: http://www.arm.gov/measurements.

Cloud Properties - Macrophysical

Measurements of various macrophysical cloud properties.

Specific Measurements:

Cloud base height: For a given cloud or cloud layer, the lowest level of the atmosphere where cloud properties are detectable.

Cloud fraction: Fraction of sky covered by clouds, observed directly or derived from SW irradiance.

Cloud top height: For a given cloud or cloud layer, the highest level of the atmosphere where cloud properties are detectable.

Cloud type: Cloud type such as cirrus, stratus, cumulus, etc.

Radar Doppler: The power spectrum and moments of the radar signal expressed as a function of Doppler frequency or Doppler velocity. It may be thought of as the reflectivity weighted radial velocity distribution of the scatterers in a distributed target.

Radar polarization: The temporal and geometric behavior of the electric field vector of an electromagnetic wave transmitted or received by a radar system, e.g.elliptical polarization, differential reflectivity, phase shift, co-polar correlation coefficient, linear depolarization ratio.

Radar reflectivity: A measure of the efficiency of a radar target in intercepting and returning radio energy. It depends upon the size, shape, aspect, and dielectric properties of that target.

 

Cloud Properties terms for the IASOA data vocabulary are taken from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program’s measurement vocabulary. For the full reference, please visit: http://www.arm.gov/measurements.

Atmospheric State - Upper Air State

Measurements of various upper atmosphere conditions.

Specific Measurements:

Advective tendency: The large-scale advective tendency of temperature and moisture used to force SCMs and CSRMs, derived from constrained variational analysis.

Atmospheric moisture: The moisture content of the air as indicated by several measurements including relative humidity, specific humidity, dewpoint, vapor pressure, water vapor mixing ratio, and water vapor density; note that precipitable water is a separate type.

Atmospheric pressure: The pressure exerted by the atmosphere as a consequence of gravitational attraction exerted upon the "column" of air lying directly above the point in question.

Atmospheric temperature: The temperature indicated by a thermometer exposed to the air in a place sheltered from direct solar radiation.

Atmospheric turbulence: High frequency velocity fluctuations that lead to turbulent transport of momentum, heat, mositure, and passive scalars, and often expressed in terms of variances and covariances.

Convection: Vertical motion within the atmosphere due to thermal instability, with important impacts on the type cloud systems that can develop.

Horizontal wind: The horizontal wind in terms of either speed and direction, or the zonal (u) and meridional (v) components.

Ice water content: The concentration (mass/vol) of ice water particles in a cloud.

Lightning stroke: Lightning stroke location, type, and intensity

Liquid water content: The concentration (mass/vol) of liquid water droplets in a cloud.

Liquid water path: A measure of the weight of the liquid water droplets in the atmosphere above a unit surface area on the earth, given in units of kg m-2.

Planetary boundary layer height: Top of the planetary boundary layer; also known as depth or height of the mixing layer.

Precipitable water: Total amount of water vapor in a vertical column of air, often expressed as the depth of the layer of water that would be formed if all the water vapor were condensed to liquid water.

Radiative heating rate: The heating rate due to the divergence of long and shortwave radiative flux.

Vertical velocity: The component of the velocity vector, along the local vertical.

Virtual temperature: The virtual temperature Tv = T(1 + rv/ε), where rv is the mixing ratio, and ε is the ratio of the gas constants of air and water vapor (0.622).

 

Radiometric terms for the IASOA data vocabulary are taken from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program’s measurement vocabulary. For the full reference, please visit: http://www.arm.gov/measurements.

Surface Properties - Subsurface State

The characteristics of the planet's soil and surface.

Specific Measurements:


Surface skin temperature: The radiative surface skin temperature, from an IR thermometer measuring the narrowband radiating temperature of the ground surface in its field of view.

Soil surface temperature: The temperature of the soil measured near the surface.

Sea surface temperature: The temperature of sea water near the surface.

Soil characteristics: Includes available water capacity, bulk density, permeability, porosity, rock fragment classification, rock fragment volume, percent clay, percent sand, and texture classification.

Soil moisture: The moisture of the soil measured near the surface. This includes soil wetness and soil water potential.

Surface albedo:  The fraction of incoming solar radiation at a surface (i.e. land, cloud top) that is effectively reflected by that surface.

Surface condition: State of the surface, including vegetation, land use, surface type, roughness, and such; often provided in model output.

 

Surface Properties terms for the IASOA data vocabulary are taken from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program’s measurement vocabulary. For the full reference, please visit: http://www.arm.gov/measurements.

Surface Properties - Surface Flux

The rate of flow of energy, enthalpy, and gases near the surface.

Specific Measurements:



Atmospheric turbulence: High frequency velocity fluctuations that lead to turbulent transport of momentum, heat, mositure, and passive scalars, and often expressed in terms of variances and covariances.

CO2 flux: The rate of flow for carbon dioxide, a heavy, colorless greenhouse gas.

Latent heat flux: The time rate of flow for the specific enthalpy difference between two phases of a substance at the same temperature, typically water.

Sensible heat flux: The time rate of flow for the energy transferred from a warm or hot surface to whatever is touching it, typically air.

Soil heat flux: A quantity measured according to the formula B = λ(dT/dz), where λ is the conductivity of the soil that the heat is moving through.

Soil moisture flux: A quantity measured according to the formula B = λ(dq/dz), where λ is the conductivity of the soil that the moisture is moving through.

Soil surface temperature: The temperature of the soil measured near the surface.

 

Surface Properties terms for the IASOA data vocabulary are taken from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program’s measurement vocabulary. For the full reference, please visit: http://www.arm.gov/measurements.

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