University of Colorado/CIRES
NOAA Earth System Research Laboratories/
Physical Sciences Laboratory
325 Broadway R/PSD1
Boulder, CO 80305-3328, USA

Telephone: (303) 497-6115
Fax: (303) 497-6449
Citizenship: USA


1997 Ph. D., University of Colorado, Boulder, CO:
Astrophysical, Planetary, and Atmospheric Sciences.
Title: Modulation of East Asian Pressure Surges.
Advisors: Dr. Peter J. Webster and Dr. George N. Kiladis.
1994 M.S. University of Colorado, Boulder, CO:
Astrophysical, Planetary, and Atmospheric Sciences.
Advisors: Dr. Peter J. Webster and Dr. George N. Kiladis.
1994 Certificate. University of Colorado, Boulder, CO:
Program in Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences
1992 B.S. Duke University, Durham, NC: Physics.

Professional Experience

2015-present Senior Research Scientist, CIRES, University of Colorado.
2008-2015 Research Scientist III, CIRES, University of Colorado.
2001-2008 Research Scientist II, CIRES, University of Colorado.
1998-2001 Research Scientist I, CIRES, University of Colorado.
1992-1997 Graduate Research Assistant, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO.
Tropical-Midlatitude interaction.
Low frequency tropical modulation of high frequency atmospheric variability.
Methodology of wavelet analysis.
Fall 1995 Teaching Assistant, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO.
Physical Processes in Atmospheres and Oceans.
Fall 1994 Teaching Assistant, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO.
Physical Processes in Atmospheres and Oceans.
1992 Student Research Assistant, Duke University, Durham, NC.
Non-Newtonian fluids in Couette-Taylor flow.
1990-1991 Student Research Assistant, Duke University, Durham, NC.
Relaxation in viscous liquids and glasses.

Awards and Honors

2017 CIRES Gold Medal Award for the 20th Century Reanalysis Project. Citation: For creating the 20th Century Reanalysis, the pioneering reconstruction of global weather and extremes using only surface pressure observations.
2017 CIRES Outstanding Performance Award for Science and Engineering.
2013 Cover article of Geophysical Research Letters: Compo et al. 2013.
2012 NOAA Modeling, Analysis, Predictions and Projections Program, Research towards the next generation of NOAA Climate Reanalyses. P.I.: A. Kumar, local P.I.: G.P. Compo, co-PIs: J.S. Whitaker, P.D. Sardeshmukh, R.Vose. 3 years, $2M award.
2012 NOAA Modeling, Analysis, Predictions and Projections Program, Improving the Prognostic Ozone Parameterization in the NCEP GFS and CFS for Climate Reanalysis and Operational Forecasts. P.I.: G.P. Compo, co-PIs: J.S. Whitaker, P.D. Sardeshmukh, C. Long, S. Moorthi, S. Lu, J.P. McCormack. 4 years, $602K award.
2011 US Dept. of Energy, Decadal and Regional Climate Prediction Using Earth System Models (EaSM) Collaborative Proposal Type 1, Developing and Implementing Ocean-Atmosphere Reanalyses for Climate Applications (OARCA), $443K, 9/2011-8/2014, P.I.: G.P. Compo, co-PI: P.D. Sardeshmukh, senior personnel: J.S. Whitaker. Collaborative with NSF EaSM proposal of same title, PI: B. Giese, co-PI: H. Seidel.
2011 US Dept. of Energy, Decadal and Regional Climate Prediction Using Earth System Models (EaSM)Type 1, New approaches for understanding the statistics of daily weather extremes in a changing climate, $447K, 9/2011- 8/2014, PI: P.D. Sardeshmukh, co-PI: G.P. Compo.
2011 Wired magazine, Transcending Time: Great Long-Term Datasets: 20th Century Reanalysis Project
2011 High Performance Computing Innovation Excellence Award, International Data Corporation
2009 US Dept of Energy Innovative and Novel Computational Impact on Theory and Experiment, Surface Input Reanalysis for Climate Applications (SIRCA) 1850-2011. PI: G.P. Compo, Co-PIs: J.S. Whitaker and P.D. Sardeshmukh, 1 year, (2.1 million hours )
2006 Cover article of Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society: Compo et al. 2006.
2007 US Dept of Energy Innovative and Novel Computational Impact on Theory and Experiment, The 20th Century Reanalysis Project. PI: G.P. Compo, Co-PIs: J.S. Whitaker and P.D. Sardeshmukh, 2 years, 20.6 million units (4.9 million hours)
2004 NOAA Clivar-Pacific, Predictability of Northern Hemisphere Stormtracks on Seasonal to Decadal Scales. PI: P.D. Sardeshmukh, Co-PI: G.P. Compo. 3 years, $210K award.
2004 Bull. Amer. Soc. Papers to Note at the Annual Meeting: Predictability of Extratropical Stormtracks.
2002 NOAA OAR Outstanding Scientific Paper,
2001: Sardeshmukh, Compo, and Penland, J. Climate.
2001 CIRES, Innovative Research Program, Feasibility of Reanalysis before the radiosonde era, $26,430 award.
2000 NOAA Clivar-Pacific, Change of variability and extreme event risks in ENSO years. PI: P.D. Sardeshmukh, Co-PIs: G.P. Compo and C. Penland. 3 years, $282,924 award.
1993-1995 University Fellowship, University of Colorado at Boulder.
1988-1992 Angier B. Duke Memorial Scholarship,
full tuition scholarship at Duke University.

Professional Memberships

1997-present American Meteorological Society, Member.
1993-1997 American Meteorological Society, Student Member.
2005-present American Geophysical Union, Member.

Professional Service

2013-present Citizen Science Project:, Team member.
2010-present Advancing Reanalysis website,, Co-founder.
2003-present GCOS AOPC/OOPC Working Group on Surface Pressure, Co-Convenor.
1997-present Wavelet Analysis email support, Co_provider.
2007-2015 GCOS/WCRP Working Group on Observational Data Sets for Reanalysis, Member.
2013-2016 NOAA Climate Reanalysis Task Force, Lead.
2001-2003 GCOS AOPC/OOPC Working Group on Surface Pressure, Member.

Refereed Publications

Rohrer, M., S. Brönnimann, O. Martius, C.C. Raible, M. Wild, and G.P. Compo, 2018: Representation of Extratropical Cyclones, Blocking Anticyclones, and Alpine Circulation Types in Multiple Reanalyses and Model Simulations. J. Climate, 31, 3009-3031,doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-17-0350.1.

Fujiwara, M., J.S. Wright, G.L. Manney, L.J. Gray, J. Anstey, T. Birner, S. Davis, E.P. Gerber, V.L. Harvey, M.I. Hegglin, C.R. Homeyer, J.A. Knox, K. Krüger, A. Lambert, C.S. Long, P. Martineau, A. Molod, B.M. Monge-Sanz, M.L. Santee, S. Tegtmeier, S. Chabrillat, D.G.H. Tan, D.R. Jackson, S. Polavarapu, G.P. Compo, R. Dragani, W. Ebisuzaki, Y. Harada, C. Kobayashi, W. McCarty, K. Onogi, S. Pawson, A. Simmons, K. Wargan, J.S. Whitaker, and C.-Z. Zou, 2017: Introduction to the SPARC Reanalysis Intercomparison Project (S-RIP) and overview of the reanalysis systems. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1417-1452, doi:10.5194/acp-17-1417-2017.

Wegmann, M., S. Brönnimann, and G.P. Compo, 2017: Tropospheric circulation during the early twentieth century Arctic warming. Cli. Dyn., 48, 2405-2418, doi:10.1007/s00382-016-3212-6.

Giese, B.S., H.F. Seidel, G.P. Compo, and P.D. Sardeshmukh, 2016: An ensemble of ocean reanalyses for 1815-2013 with sparse observational input. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 121, 6891-6910, doi:10.1002/2016JC012079.

Turney, C.S.M., R.T. Jones, D. Lister, P. Jones, A.N. Williams, A. Hogg, Z. A. Thomas, G.P. Compo, X. Yin, C.J. Fogwill, 2016: Anomalous mid-twentieth century atmospheric circulation change over the South Atlantic compared to the last 6000 years. Env. Res. Lett., 11, 064009, doi:10.1088/1748-9326/11/6/064009.

Stickler, A., S. Storz, R. Wartenburger, H. Hersbach, G.P. Compo, P. Poli, D. Dee, and S. Broennimann, 2015: Upper-air observations from the German Atlantic Expedition (1925-27) and comparison with the Twentieth Century and ERA-20C reanalyses. Meteorol. Zeit., 24, 525-544, doi:10.1127/metz/2015/0683.

Brönnimann, S., A. M. Fischer, E. Rozanov, P. Poli, G.P. Compo, P.D. Sardeshmukh, 2015: Southward shift of the northern tropical belt from 1945 to 1980. Nature Geo., 8, 969-974, doi:10.1038/NGEO2568.

Sardeshmukh, P.D., G.P. Compo, and C. Penland, 2015: Need for caution in interpreting extreme weather statistics. J. Climate, 28, 9166-9187, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0020.1.

Brugnara, Y., R. Auchmann, S. Brönnimann, R. J. Allan,I. Auer, M. Barriendos, H. Bergström, J. Bhend, R. Brázdil, G. P. Compo, R. C. Cornes, F. Dominguez-Castro, A. F. V. van Engelen,J. Filipiak, J. Holopainen, S. Jourdain, M. Kunz, M., J. Luterbacher, M. Maugeri, L. Mercalli, A. Moberg, C. J. Mock, G. Pichard,L. Řezníčková , G. van der Schrier, V. Slonosky, Z. Ustrnul, M. A. Valente, A. Wypych, and X. Yin, 2015: A collection of sub-daily pressure and temperature observations for the early instrumental period with a focus on the "year without a summer" 1816, Clim. Past, 11, 1027-1047, doi:10.5194/cp-11-1027-2015.

Stucki, P., S. Brönnimann, O. Martius, C. Welker, R. Rickli, S. Dierer, D. N. Bresch, G. P. Compo, P. D. Sardeshmukh, 2015: Dynamical downscaling and loss modeling for the reconstruction of historical weather extremes and their impacts - A severe foehn storm in 1925. Bull. Amer. Met. Soc., 96, 1233-1241, doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-14-00041.1.

Cram, T.A., G. P. Compo, X. Yin, R. J. Allan, C. McColl, R. S. Vose, J.S. Whitaker, N. Matsui, L. Ashcroft, R. Auchmann, P. Bessemoulin, T. Brandsma, P. Brohan, M. Brunet, J. Comeaux, R. Crouthamel, B. E. Gleason, Jr., P. Y. Groisman, H. Hersbach, P. D. Jones, T. Jonsson, S. Jourdain, G. Kelly, K. R. Knapp, A. Kruger, H. Kubota, G. Lentini, A. Lorrey, N. Lott, S. J. Lubker, J. Luterbacher, G. J. Marshall, M. Maugeri, C. J. Mock, H. Y. Mok, O. Nordli, M. J. Rodwell, T. F. Ross, D. Schuster, L. Srnec, M. A. Valente, Z. Vizi, X. L. Wang, N. Westcott, J. S. Woollen, S. J. Worley, 2015: The International Surface Pressure Databank version 2. Geoscience Data J., 2, 31-46. doi:10.1002/gdj3.25.

Müller, W.A., D. Matei, M. Bersch, J.H. Jungclaus, H. Haak, K. Lohmann, G.P. Compo, P.D. Sardeshmukh, and J. Marotzke, 2015: A twentieth-century reanalysis forced ocean model to reconstruct the North Atlantic climate variation during the 1920s. Cli. Dyn., 44, 1935-1955, doi:10.1007/s00382-014-2267-5.

Cox, C. J., V. P. Walden, G. P. Compo, P. M. Rowe, M. D. Shupe, and K. Steffen, 2014: Downwelling longwave flux over Summit, Greenland 2010-2012: Analysis of surface-based observations and evaluation of ERA-Interim using wavelets. J. Geophys. Res., 119, 12317-12337, doi:10.1002/2014JD021975.

Purevjav, G., R. C. Balling, R. S. Cerveny, R. Allan, G. P. Compo, P. Jones, T. C. Peterson, M. Brunet, F. Driouech, J. L. Stella, B. M. Svoma, D. Krahenbuhl, R. S. Vose, X. Yin, 2015: The Tosontsengel Mongolia world record sea-level pressure extreme: spatial analysis of elevation bias in adjustment-to-sea-level pressures. Int. J. Climatology, 35, 2968-2977, doi:10.1002/joc.418610.1002/joc.4186.

Smith, C.A., G.P. Compo, and D.K. Hooper, 2014: Web-based Reanalysis Intercomparison Tools (WRIT) for analysis and comparison of reanalyses and other datasets. Bull. Amer. Met. Soc., 95, 1671-1678, doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-13-00192.1.

Sandeep, S., F. Stordal, P.D. Sardeshmukh, and G.P. Compo, 2014: Pacific Walker Circulation variability in coupled and uncoupled climate models. Cli. Dyn., 43, 103-117, doi:10.1007/s00382-014-2135-3.

Neff, W., G.P. Compo, F.M. Ralph, and M.D. Shupe, 2014: Continental heat anomalies and the extreme melting of the Greenland ice surface in 2012 and 1889. J. Geophys. Res., 119, 6520-6536, doi:10.1002/2014JD021470.

Wang, X.L., Y. Feng, G.P. Compo, F.W. Zwiers, R.J. Allan, V.R. Swail, and P.D. Sardeshmukh, 2014: Is the storminess in the Twentieth Century Reanalysis really inconsistent with observations? A reply to the comment by Krueger et al. (2013b). Cli. Dyn., 42, 1113-1125, doi:10.1007/s00382-013-1828-3.

Wang, X.L., Y. Feng, G.P. Compo, V.R. Swail, F.W. Zwiers, R.J. Allan, and P.D. Sardeshmukh, 2013: Trends and low frequency variability of extra-tropical cyclone activity in the ensemble of Twentieth Century Reanalysis. Cli. Dyn., 40, 2775-2800, doi:10.1007/s00382-012-1450-9.

Compo, G.P., P.D. Sardeshmukh, J.S. Whitaker, P. Brohan, P.D. Jones, and C. McColl, 2013: Independent confirmation of global land warming without the use of station temperatures. Geophys. Res. Letters, 40, 3170-3174, doi:10.1002/grl.50425.

Wang, X.L., Y. Feng, G.P. Compo, F.W. Zwiers, R.J. Allan, V.R. Swail, and P.D. Sardeshmukh, 2013: Is the storminess in the Twentieth Century Reanalysis really inconsistent with observations? A reply to the comment by Krueger et al. (2013b). Cli. Dyn., in press, doi:10.1007/s00382-013-1828-3.

Brönnimann, S., and G.P. Compo, 2012: Ozone highs and associated flow features in the first half of the twentieth century in different data sets. Meteorol. Zeit., 21, 49-59, doi:10.1127/0941-2948/2012/0284.

Brönnimann, S., O. Martius, H. von Waldow, C. Welker, J. Luterbacher, G.P. Compo, P.D. Sardeshmukh, and T. Usbeck, 2012: Extreme winds at northern mid-latitudes since 1871. Meteorol. Zeit., 21, 13-27, doi: 10.1127/0941-2948/2012/0337.

Brönnimann, S., A.N. Grant, G.P. Compo, T. Ewen, T. Griesser, and A.M. Fischer, 2011: A multi-data set comparison of the vertical structure of temperature variability and change over the Arctic during the past 100 years. Cli. Dyn., 39, 1577-1598, doi:10.1007/s00382-012-1291-6.

Allan, R., P. Brohan, G.P. Compo, R. Stone, J. Luterbacher, and S. Brönnimann, 2011: The International Atmospheric Circulation Reconstructions over the Earth (ACRE) initiative. Bull. Amer. Met. Soc., 92, 1421-1425. doi: 10.1175/2011BAMS3218.1

Dee, D., P. Berrisford, M. G. Bosilovich, M. Chelliah , G. Compo, A. Ebita, P. D. Jones, S. Kobayashi, A. Kumar, G. Rutledge, S. Saha , H. Sato, A. Simmons, C. Smith, R. Vose, 2011: The use of reanalysis data for monitoring the state of the climate [in State of the Climate 2010]. Bull. Amer. Met. Soc., 92 ( 6 ) , S34-S35, doi: 10.1175/1520-0477-92.6.S1.

Wang, X.L., H. Wan, F.W. Zwiers, V.R. Swail, G.P. Compo, R.J. Allan, R.S. Vose, and X. Yin, 2011: Trends and low-frequency variability of storminess over western Europe, 1878-2007. Clim. Dyn., 37, 2355-2371, doi:10.1007/s00382-011-1107-0.

Brönnimann, S., G.P. Compo, R. Spadin, R. Allan, and W. Adam, 2011: Early ship-based upper-air data and comparison with the Twentieth Century Reanalysis. Clim. Past, 7, 265-276, doi:10.5194/cp-7-265-2011.

Allan, R.J., G.P. Compo, and J. Carton, 2011: Recovery of Global Surface Weather Observations for Historical Reanalyses and International Users, Eos Trans. AGU, 92, doi:10.1029/2011EO180008.

Compo, G.P., J.S. Whitaker, P.D. Sardeshmukh, N. Matsui, R.J. Allan, X. Yin, B.E. Gleason, R.S. Vose, G. Rutledge, P. Bessemoulin, S. Brönnimann, M. Brunet, R.I. Crouthamel, A.N. Grant, P.Y. Groisman, P.D. Jones, M. Kruk, A.C. Kruger, G.J. Marshall, M. Maugeri, H.Y. Mok, Ø. Nordli, T.F. Ross, R.M. Trigo, X.L. Wang, S.D. Woodruff, and S.J. Worley, 2011: The Twentieth Century Reanalysis Project. Quarterly J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc., 137, 1-28. DOI: 10.1002/qj.776.

Stickler, A., A.N. Grant, T. Ewen, T.F. Ross, R.S. Vose, J. Comeaux, P. Bessemoulin, K. Jylha, W.K. Adam, P. Jeannet, A. Nagurny, A.M. Sterin, R. Allan, G.P. Compo, T. Griesser, and S. Brönnimann, 2010: The Comprehensive Historical Upper Air Network (CHUAN). Bull. Amer. Met. Soc., 91, 741-751, DOI: 10.1175/2009BAMS2852.1. AMS copyright

Compo, G.P., and P.D. Sardeshmukh, 2010: Removing ENSO-related variations from the climate record. J. Climate, 23, 1957-1978. DOI: 10.1175/2009JCLI2735.1. AMS copyright

Giese, B.S., G.P. Compo, N.C. Slowey, P.D. Sardeshmukh, J.A. Carton, S. Ray, and J.S. Whitaker, 2010: The 1918/1919 El Nino. Bull. Amer. Met. Soc., 91, 177-183, DOI: 10.1175/2009BAMS2903.1. AMS copyright

Whitaker, J.S., G.P.Compo, and J.-N. Thepaut, 2009: A comparison of variational and ensemble-based data assimilation systems for reanalysis of sparse observations. Mon. Wea. Rev., 137, 1991-1999. AMS copyright

Compo, G.P., and P.D. Sardeshmukh, 2009: Oceanic influences on recent continental warming. Climate Dynamics, 32, 333-342, DOI: 10.1007/s00382-008-0448-9. The original publication is available at

Watkins, L., R.M. Neupauer, and G.P. Compo, 2009: Wavelet analysis and filtering to identify dominant orientations of permeability anisotropy. Mathematical Geosciences, 41, 643-659.

Compo, G.P., J.S. Whitaker, and P.D. Sardeshmukh, 2006: Feasibility of a 100 year reanalysis using only surface pressure data. Bull. Amer. Met. Soc., 87, 175-190. AMS copyright

Brönnimann,S., G.P. Compo, P.D. Sardeshmukh, R. Jenne, and A. Sterin, 2005: New approaches for extending the Twentieth Century climate record. Eos,86,1,2-6. AGU copyright

Compo, G.P., and P.D. Sardeshmukh, 2004: Storm Track predictability on seasonal and decadal scales. J. Climate, 17, 3701-3720. AMS copyright

Whitaker, J.S., G.P. Compo, X. Wei, and T.M. Hamill, 2004: Reanalysis without radiosondes using ensemble data assimilation. Mon. Wea. Rev., 132, 1190-1200.AMS copyright

Newman, M., G.P. Compo, and M.A. Alexander, 2003: ENSO-forced variability of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. J. Climate, 16, 3853-3857.AMS copyright

Loschnigg, J., G.A. Meehl, P.J. Webster, J.M. Arblaster, and G.P. Compo, 2003: The Asian Monsoon, the Tropospheric Biennial Oscillation, and the Indian Ocean Zonal Mode in the NCAR CSM. J. Climate, 16, 1617-1642.AMS copyright

Compo, G.P., P.D. Sardeshmukh, and C. Penland, 2001: Changes of subseasonal variability associated with El Niño. J. Climate, 14, 3356-3374. AMS copyright

Sardeshmukh, P.D., G.P. Compo, and C. Penland, 2000: Changes of probability associated with El Niño. J. Climate, 13, 4268-4286. AMS copyright

Compo, G.P., G.N. Kiladis, and P.J. Webster, 1999: East Asian winter Monsoon pressure surges and their relationship to Tropical variability. Quart. J. Roy. Met. Soc., 125, 29-54. RMS copyright

Torrence, C. and G. P. Compo, 1998: A practical guide to wavelet analysis. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 79, 61-78. AMS copyright

Meehl, G.A., G.N. Kiladis, K.M. Weickmann, M. Wheeler, D.S. Gutzler, and G.P. Compo, 1996: Modulation of equatorial subseasonal convective episodes by Tropical-extratropical interaction in the Indian and Pacific Ocean regions. J. of Geophys. Res., 101, 15033-15049. AGU copyright