Trajectory model and caveats:
Levels used are from 1000mb to 100mb. Input winds are available 4 times daily(0,6,12 and 18z). The trajectory model does not know about the surface and calculations can result in air moving under the surface. Interpolated model output is used below the surface.
- Noone, D., and I. Simmonds, 1999: A three-dimensional spherical trajectory algorithm. Research Activities in Atmospheric and Oceanic Modelling, Report No. 28, WMO/TD-No. 942. H. Ritchie, Ed., World Meteorological Organization, 3.26-3.27.
- Barras, V., and I. Simmonds, 2009: Observation and modeling of stable water isotopes as diagnostics of rainfall dynamics over southeastern Australia Journal of Geophysical Research, 114, D23308, doi:10.1029/2009JD012132, 2009.
If you use plots or data from the page, we would also appreciate a mention: "Image provided by the NOAA Physical Sciences Laboratory, Boulder Colorado from their Web site at https://psl.noaa.gov/". Finally, you should reference the dataset that is used in the plot.
This is a Research and Development Application