Berg, W. K., J. J. Bates, and D. L. Jackson, 1999: Analysis of upper tropospheric water vapor using SSM/T2, HIRS-12, and GMS VISSR data. J. Appl. Met., 38, 580-595.


Satellite microwave and infrared instruments sensitive to upper-tropospheric water vapor (UTWV) are compared using both simulated and observed cloud-cleared brightness temperatures (Tb's). To filter out cloudy scenes, a cloud detection algorithm is developed for the Special Sensor Microwave/Temperature-2 (SSM/T2 or T2) data using the 92- and 150-GHz window channels. An analysis of the effect of clouds on the T2 183-GHz channels shows sensitivity primarily to high clouds containing ice, resulting in significantly better sampling of UTWV Tb's over the convective zones and regions of persistent cloudiness. This is in contrast to the infrared sensors, which are extremely sensitive to any cloud contamination in the satellite field of view. A comparison of simulated UTWV Tb's from T2, the High-resolution Infrared Sounder (HIRS), and the Visible Infrared Spin Scan Radiometer (VISSR) indicates a higher overall sensitivity to changes in UTWV in the T2 channel. HIRS and VISSR, however, are more sensitive to moisture at higher levels. Cloud-cleared Tb's from T2 and HIRS were found to be highly correlated in the tropical dry zones and in regions of strong seasonal variability but less correlated at higher latitudes. The advantages of the microwave T2 sensor for monitoring UTWV are demonstrated by its greater sensitivity to changes in upper-tropospheric moisture and superior coverage over cloudy regions.