WRIT Monthly Time-series Plotting Page: Reanalysis and Observational Datasets and Variables

The different datasets have different analyses levels so you may need to consider that when choosing differences. The dataset are at different resolutions. Differences are computed by interpolating the lower res dataset of the two being compared to the resolution of the higher res and subtracting. Anomalies are based on the climo from each reanalyses dataset separately. Units have been changed so the datasets can be compared. More recent data may be available at the source.

For more information and discussion of various atmospheric and oceanic reanalyses, see the "Reanalysis Intercomparison and Observations Wiki" at https://reanalyses.org. For references/citations please go to the Reanalyses.org/atmosphere/references wiki page for a current list.


Reanalyses Datasets
DatasetStart Date1End Date1Climo AvailableDataset WebpageClimate Data Guide (NCAR) or other
20CRv3Jan 1836Dec 20151981-2010PSL 20CR Project
20CRV2cJan 1851Dec 20141981-2012PSL 20CR ProjectGuide
20CRJan 1871Dec 20121981-2012PSL 20CR ProjectGuide
CERA-20CJan 1901Dec 20101981-2010ECMWF Doc page
ERA20CJan 1900Dec 20101981-2010ECMWF Doc pageGuide
ERA5Jan 1948Aug 2019 1991-2020ECMWF Doc pageGuide
ERA-InterimJan 1979Aug 2019 1981-2010ECMWF Doc pageGuide
JRA-55Jan 1958Jan 2024 1981-2010JMA Doc pageGuide
JRA-55 ScreenJan 1958Jan 2024 1981-2010JMA Doc pageGuide
MERRAJan 1979Jan 20151981-2010NASA Doc pageGuide
MERRA 2Jan 1980[an error occurred while processing this directive]1981-2010NASA MERRA2 Page
NCEP CFSRJan 1979Mar 2024 1981-2010NCEI Doc pageGuide
NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis Jan 1948Apr 2024 1981-2010PSL docGuide
NCEP/DOE Reanalysis IIJan 1979Apr 2024 1981-2010PSL docGuide
  • NCEP/DOE Reanalysis II (1979-2011)

    NCEP produced a second version of their first reanalysis starting from the beginning of the major satellite era. More observations were added, assimilation errors were corrected and a better version of the model was used.
  • 20th Century Reanalysis (V2) 1871-2010, V2c (1851-2014), and V3 (1836-2015)(20CR Home page)

    The 20th Century Reanalysis V2 and V2c dataset contains global weather conditions and their uncertainty in six hour intervals from the year 1856 to 2014. V3 has 3 hourly data from 1836-2015. Surface and sea level pressure observations are combined with a short-term forecast from an ensemble of integrations of an NCEP numerical weather prediction model using the recently developed Ensemble Kalman Filter technique to produce an estimate of the complete state of the atmosphere, and the uncertainty in that estimate. Additional observations and a newer version of the NCEP model that includes time-varying CO2 concentrations, solar variability, and volcanic aerosols are used in version 2. The long time range of this dataset allows scientists to examine better long time scale climate processes such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation as well as looking at the dynamics of historical climate and weather events. Verification tests have shown that using only pressure creates reasonable atmospheric fields up to the tropopause. Additional tests suggest some correspondence with observed variations in the lower stratosphere.
  • NASA Modern Era Reanalysis for Research and Applications (MERRA): 1979-2015 (MERRA Home page)

    MERRA is a NASA reanalysis for the satellite era using a major new version of the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System Version 5 (GEOS-5) produced by the NASA GSFC Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO). The Project focuses on historical analyses of the hydrological cycle on a broad range of weather and climate time scales and places the NASA EOS suite of observations in a climate context.
  • NASA Modern Era Reanalysis for Research and Applications (MERRA-2): 1980-present (MERRA Home page)

    The Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications, Version 2 (MERRA-2) provides data beginning in 1980. It was introduced to replace the original MERRA dataset because of the advances made in the assimilation system that enable assimilation of modern hyperspectral radiance and microwave observations, along with GPS-Radio Occultation datasets. It also uses NASA ozone observations after 2005. Additional advances in both the GEOS-5 model and the GSI assimilation system are included in MERRA-2. Spatial resolution remains about the same (about 50 km in the latitudinal direction) as in MERRA. Along with the enhancements in the meteorological assimilation, MERRA-2 takes some significant steps towards GMAO’s target of an Earth System reanalysis. MERRA-2 is the first long-term global reanalysis to assimilate space-based observations of aerosols and represent their interactions with other physical processes in the climate system. MERRA-2 includes a representation of ice sheets over (say) Greenland and Antarctica.
  • ERA-Interim: 1979-present (ERA-Interim Home page)

    ERA-Interim was originally planned as an 'interim' reanalysis in preparation for the next-generation extended reanalysis to replace ERA-40. It uses a December 2006 version of the ECMWF Integrated Forecast Model (IFS Cy31r2). It originally covered dates from 1 Jan 1989 but an additional decade, from 1 January 1979, was added later. ERA-Interim is being continued in real time. The spectral resolution is T255 (about 80 km) and there are 60 vertical levels, with the model top at 0.1 hPa (about 64 km). The data assimilation is based on a 12-hourly four-dimensional variational analysis (4D-Var) with adaptive estimation of biases in satellite radiance data (VarBC). With some exceptions, ERA-Interim uses input observations prepared for ERA-40 until 2002, and data from ECMWF's operational archive thereafter. An pen-access journal article describing the ERA-Interim reanalysis is now available from the Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society and should be used as the citation.
  • ERA-20C: 1900-2010 (ERA-20C Home page)

    ERA-20C is ECMWF's first atmospheric reanalysis of the 20th century, from 1900-2010. It assimilates observations of surface pressure and surface marine winds only. It is an outcome of the ERA-CLIM project.
  • JRA-55: 1958-present (JRA-55 Home page)

    JMA carried out the second reanalysis project (known as the Japanese 55-year Reanalysis, or JRA-55) using a more sophisticated DA system based on the operational system as of December 2009, and newly prepared dataset of past observations. The analysis period covers the 55 years from 1958, when regular radiosonde observation began on a global basis. Many of the deficiencies of JRA-25 are alleviated in JRA-55 because the DA system used for the project featured a variety of improvements introduced after JRA-25. As a result, the JRA-55 project produced a high-quality homogeneous climate dataset covering the last half century. References
    1. Ebita, A., S. Kobayashi, Y. Ota, M. Moriya, R. Kumabe, K. Onogi, Y. Harada, S. Yasui, K. Miyaoka, K. Takahashi, H. Kamahori, C. Kobayashi, H. Endo, M. Soma, Y. Oikawa, and T. Ishimizu, 2011: The Japanese 55-year Reanalysis "JRA-55": an interim report, SOLA, 7, 149-152. (This article is an interim report of JRA-55 as of 2011. A comprehensive report of JRA-55 was submitted to J. Meteor. Soc. Japan (as of May 2014).)
    2. Onogi, K., J. Tsutsui, H. Koide, M. Sakamoto, S. Kobayashi, H. Hatsushika, T. Matsumoto, N. Yamazaki, H. Kamahori, K. Takahashi, S. Kadokura, K. Wada, K. Kato, R. Oyama, T. Ose, N. Mannoji and R. Taira (2007) : The JRA-25 Reanalysis. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 85, 369-432.
Observational Datasets
DatasetVariablesStart Date1End Date1Climo Available at PSLDocClimate Data Guide (NCAR)
Berkeley Temperature (land/ocean)2m temperatureJan 1850near present1981-2010Berkeley doc pageGuide
CLASSnmat (Nighttime Marine Temperature)2m night time temperatureJan 1880Dec 20191981-2010Paper
CMAP (STD)precipitationJan 1979near present1981-2010PSL docGuide
CMST (China Merged Surface Temperature)Air temperature anomaliesJan 1854Dec 20191981-2010paper and https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.901295
CRU_TS 4.032m temperatureJan 1901Dec 20181981-2010CRU Webpage
COBE SSTJan 1891near present1981-2010Guide
COBE-2 SSTSSTJan 1850Dec 20171981-2010PSL COBE2
CRUTEM4temperatureJan 1850near present1961-1990Climatic Research UnitGuide
CWv2/HadCRUT (Cowtan and Way v2/HadCRUT)2m air temperature anomaliesJan 1850Jan 20201981-2010Paper
GHCN-CAMS2m temperatureJan 1948near present1981-2010PSL GHCN-CAMS Doc
GPCP V2.3precipitationJan 1979near present1981-2010Guide
GPCCprecipitationJan 1891near present1981-2010PSL GPCC version data docGuide
GISTEMP v4Air temperature anomaliesJan 1880present1951-1980PSL Doc page
Gridded SIBT IceSea-ice concentrationJan 1851Dec 20131981-2010NSIDC link
HadCRUT4 V4.6Median surface air temperatureJan 1850near present1961-1990Climatic Research Unit
HadISDHSpecific HumidityJan 1973Dec 20191981-2010UK Met Center Webpage
HadISST 1.1 SST,IceJan 1870near present1981-2010Guide
HadISST 2.2 IceJan 1870near present1981-2010Met Office
HadNMAT2 2m temperature (night-time)Jan 188020101961-1990Met Center HadNMAT2 page
HadSLP2SLPJan 1871near present (full is 1850)1981-2010PSL HadSLP2 doc
JMA Temperature Anomalies2m temperature (night-time)Jan 189120161981-2010JMA Webpage
NOAA ERSST V3b,V4, and V5SSTJan 1870near present1981-2010V3b Guide,V4 Guide
NOAA Global Temperature Anomalies2m temperatureJan 1880near present1981-2010Guide
NOAA Reconstructed Land PrecipPrecipitationJan 1948near present1981-2010Guide
NASA NVAPprecipitable waterJan 1988Dec 20091981-2010NVAP Website and NASA Website
U of Delaware 5.012m temperature, precipitationJan 1900Dec 20171981-2010Guide
UAHNMATNight-time marine air temperaturesJan 1900Dec 20181981-2010Webpage
WASWinds10m zonal, meridional windsJan 1950Dec 20111981-2010Guide
WRIT is supported in part by NOAA/ESRL Physical Sciences Laboratory, the NOAA Climate Program Office, and the US Department of Energy's Office of Science (BER). WRIT contributes to the Atmospheric Circulation Reconstructions over the Earth (ACRE) Initiative.