WRIT Monthly Time-series Plotting Page: Reanalysis and Observational Datasets and Variables
The different datasets have different analyses levels so you may need to consider that when choosing differences. The dataset are at different resolutions. Differences are computed by interpolating the lower res dataset of the two being compared to the resolution of the higher res and subtracting. Anomalies are based on the climo from each reanalyses dataset separately. Units have been changed so the datasets can be compared. More recent data may be available at the source.
For more information and discussion of various atmospheric and oceanic reanalyses, see the "Reanalysis Intercomparison and Observations Wiki" at https://reanalyses.org. For references/citations please go to the Reanalyses.org/atmosphere/references wiki page for a current list.
|Dataset||Start Date1||End Date1||Climo Available||Dataset Webpage||Climate Data Guide (NCAR) or other|
|20CRv3||Jan 1836||Dec 2015||1981-2010||PSL 20CR Project|
|20CRV2c||Jan 1851||Dec 2014||1981-2012||PSL 20CR Project||Guide|
|20CR||Jan 1871||Dec 2012||1981-2012||PSL 20CR Project||Guide|
|CERA-20C||Jan 1901||Dec 2010||1981-2010||ECMWF Doc page|
|ERA20C||Jan 1900||Dec 2010||1981-2010||ECMWF Doc page||Guide|
|ERA5||Jan 1948||Aug 2019||1991-2020||ECMWF Doc page||Guide|
|ERA-Interim||Jan 1979||Aug 2019||1981-2010||ECMWF Doc page||Guide|
|JRA-55||Jan 1958||Apr 2023||1981-2010||JMA Doc page||Guide|
|JRA-55 Screen||Jan 1958||Apr 2023||1981-2010||JMA Doc page||Guide|
|MERRA||Jan 1979||Jan 2015||1981-2010||NASA Doc page||Guide|
|MERRA 2||Jan 1980||[an error occurred while processing this directive]||1981-2010||NASA MERRA2 Page|
|NCEP CFSR||Jan 1979||Apr 2023||1981-2010||NCEI Doc page||Guide|
|NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis||Jan 1948||May 2023||1981-2010||PSL doc||Guide|
|NCEP/DOE Reanalysis II||Jan 1979||Apr 2023||1981-2010||PSL doc||Guide|
NCEP/DOE Reanalysis II (1979-2011)NCEP produced a second version of their first reanalysis starting from the beginning of the major satellite era. More observations were added, assimilation errors were corrected and a better version of the model was used.
20th Century Reanalysis (V2) 1871-2010, V2c (1851-2014), and V3 (1836-2015)(20CR Home page)The 20th Century Reanalysis V2 and V2c dataset contains global weather conditions and their uncertainty in six hour intervals from the year 1856 to 2014. V3 has 3 hourly data from 1836-2015. Surface and sea level pressure observations are combined with a short-term forecast from an ensemble of integrations of an NCEP numerical weather prediction model using the recently developed Ensemble Kalman Filter technique to produce an estimate of the complete state of the atmosphere, and the uncertainty in that estimate. Additional observations and a newer version of the NCEP model that includes time-varying CO2 concentrations, solar variability, and volcanic aerosols are used in version 2. The long time range of this dataset allows scientists to examine better long time scale climate processes such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation as well as looking at the dynamics of historical climate and weather events. Verification tests have shown that using only pressure creates reasonable atmospheric fields up to the tropopause. Additional tests suggest some correspondence with observed variations in the lower stratosphere.
NASA Modern Era Reanalysis for Research and Applications (MERRA): 1979-2015 (MERRA Home page)MERRA is a NASA reanalysis for the satellite era using a major new version of the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System Version 5 (GEOS-5) produced by the NASA GSFC Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO). The Project focuses on historical analyses of the hydrological cycle on a broad range of weather and climate time scales and places the NASA EOS suite of observations in a climate context.
NASA Modern Era Reanalysis for Research and Applications (MERRA-2): 1980-present (MERRA Home page)The Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications, Version 2 (MERRA-2) provides data beginning in 1980. It was introduced to replace the original MERRA dataset because of the advances made in the assimilation system that enable assimilation of modern hyperspectral radiance and microwave observations, along with GPS-Radio Occultation datasets. It also uses NASA ozone observations after 2005. Additional advances in both the GEOS-5 model and the GSI assimilation system are included in MERRA-2. Spatial resolution remains about the same (about 50 km in the latitudinal direction) as in MERRA. Along with the enhancements in the meteorological assimilation, MERRA-2 takes some significant steps towards GMAO’s target of an Earth System reanalysis. MERRA-2 is the first long-term global reanalysis to assimilate space-based observations of aerosols and represent their interactions with other physical processes in the climate system. MERRA-2 includes a representation of ice sheets over (say) Greenland and Antarctica.
ERA-Interim: 1979-present (ERA-Interim Home page)ERA-Interim was originally planned as an 'interim' reanalysis in preparation for the next-generation extended reanalysis to replace ERA-40. It uses a December 2006 version of the ECMWF Integrated Forecast Model (IFS Cy31r2). It originally covered dates from 1 Jan 1989 but an additional decade, from 1 January 1979, was added later. ERA-Interim is being continued in real time. The spectral resolution is T255 (about 80 km) and there are 60 vertical levels, with the model top at 0.1 hPa (about 64 km). The data assimilation is based on a 12-hourly four-dimensional variational analysis (4D-Var) with adaptive estimation of biases in satellite radiance data (VarBC). With some exceptions, ERA-Interim uses input observations prepared for ERA-40 until 2002, and data from ECMWF's operational archive thereafter. An pen-access journal article describing the ERA-Interim reanalysis is now available from the Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society and should be used as the citation.
ERA-20C: 1900-2010 (ERA-20C Home page)ERA-20C is ECMWF's first atmospheric reanalysis of the 20th century, from 1900-2010. It assimilates observations of surface pressure and surface marine winds only. It is an outcome of the ERA-CLIM project.
JRA-55: 1958-present (JRA-55 Home page)JMA carried out the second reanalysis project (known as the Japanese 55-year Reanalysis, or JRA-55) using a more sophisticated DA system based on the operational system as of December 2009, and newly prepared dataset of past observations. The analysis period covers the 55 years from 1958, when regular radiosonde observation began on a global basis. Many of the deficiencies of JRA-25 are alleviated in JRA-55 because the DA system used for the project featured a variety of improvements introduced after JRA-25. As a result, the JRA-55 project produced a high-quality homogeneous climate dataset covering the last half century. References
- Ebita, A., S. Kobayashi, Y. Ota, M. Moriya, R. Kumabe, K. Onogi, Y. Harada, S. Yasui, K. Miyaoka, K. Takahashi, H. Kamahori, C. Kobayashi, H. Endo, M. Soma, Y. Oikawa, and T. Ishimizu, 2011: The Japanese 55-year Reanalysis "JRA-55": an interim report, SOLA, 7, 149-152. (This article is an interim report of JRA-55 as of 2011. A comprehensive report of JRA-55 was submitted to J. Meteor. Soc. Japan (as of May 2014).)
- Onogi, K., J. Tsutsui, H. Koide, M. Sakamoto, S. Kobayashi, H. Hatsushika, T. Matsumoto, N. Yamazaki, H. Kamahori, K. Takahashi, S. Kadokura, K. Wada, K. Kato, R. Oyama, T. Ose, N. Mannoji and R. Taira (2007) : The JRA-25 Reanalysis. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 85, 369-432.
Observational Datasets Dataset Variables Start Date1 End Date1 Climo Available at PSL Doc Climate Data Guide (NCAR) Berkeley Temperature (land/ocean) 2m temperature Jan 1850 near present 1981-2010 Berkeley doc page Guide CLASSnmat (Nighttime Marine Temperature) 2m night time temperature Jan 1880 Dec 2019 1981-2010 Paper CMAP (STD) precipitation Jan 1979 near present 1981-2010 PSL doc Guide CMST (China Merged Surface Temperature) Air temperature anomalies Jan 1854 Dec 2019 1981-2010 paper and https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.901295 CRU_TS 4.03 2m temperature Jan 1901 Dec 2018 1981-2010 CRU Webpage COBE SST Jan 1891 near present 1981-2010 Guide COBE-2 SST SST Jan 1850 Dec 2017 1981-2010 PSL COBE2 CRUTEM4 temperature Jan 1850 near present 1961-1990 Climatic Research Unit Guide CWv2/HadCRUT (Cowtan and Way v2/HadCRUT) 2m air temperature anomalies Jan 1850 Jan 2020 1981-2010 Paper GHCN-CAMS 2m temperature Jan 1948 near present 1981-2010 PSL GHCN-CAMS Doc < GPCP V2.3 precipitation Jan 1979 near present 1981-2010 Guide GPCC precipitation Jan 1891 near present 1981-2010 PSL GPCC version data doc Guide GISTEMP v4 Air temperature anomalies Jan 1880 present 1951-1980 PSL Doc page Gridded SIBT Ice Sea-ice concentration Jan 1851 Dec 2013 1981-2010 NSIDC link HadCRUT4 V4.6 Median surface air temperature Jan 1850 near present 1961-1990 Climatic Research Unit HadISDH Specific Humidity Jan 1973 Dec 2019 1981-2010 UK Met Center Webpage HadISST 1.1 SST,Ice Jan 1870 near present 1981-2010 Guide HadISST 2.2 Ice Jan 1870 near present 1981-2010 Met Office HadNMAT2 2m temperature (night-time) Jan 1880 2010 1961-1990 Met Center HadNMAT2 page HadSLP2 SLP Jan 1871 near present (full is 1850) 1981-2010 PSL HadSLP2 doc JMA Temperature Anomalies 2m temperature (night-time) Jan 1891 2016 1981-2010 JMA Webpage NOAA ERSST V3b,V4, and V5 SST Jan 1870 near present 1981-2010 V3b Guide,V4 Guide NOAA Global Temperature Anomalies 2m temperature Jan 1880 near present 1981-2010 Guide NOAA Reconstructed Land Precip Precipitation Jan 1948 near present 1981-2010 Guide NASA NVAP precipitable water Jan 1988 Dec 2009 1981-2010 NVAP Website and NASA Website U of Delaware 5.01 2m temperature, precipitation Jan 1900 Dec 2017 1981-2010 Guide UAHNMAT Night-time marine air temperatures Jan 1900 Dec 2018 1981-2010 Webpage WASWinds 10m zonal, meridional winds Jan 1950 Dec 2011 1981-2010 Guide
WRIT is supported in part by NOAA/ESRL Physical Sciences Laboratory, the NOAA Climate Program Office, and the US Department of Energy's Office of Science (BER). WRIT contributes to the Atmospheric Circulation Reconstructions over the Earth (ACRE) Initiative.
Berkeley Land/Air Temperature
NOAA ERSST V3bNOAA Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature (ERSSTV3b) is a gridded 5x5 resolution SST dataset extending back into the 19th century.
NOAA ERSST V4NOAA Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature (ERSST V4) is a gridded 5x5 resolution SST dataset extending back into the 19th century.
NOAA ERSST V5NOAA Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature (ERSSTV5) is a gridded 5x5 resolution SST dataset extending back into the 19th century.
WASWindWave and Anemometer-based Sea Surface Wind (WASWind) from the U of Hawaii. It a gridded a sea surface wind dataset from ship observations of wind speed and wind wave height archived in the International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (ICOADS).
HadSLP2Hadley Centre Sea Level Pressure dataset (HadSLP2) is a gridded 5x5 resolution SLP dataset extending back into the 19th century. After 2004, values are filled in using the NCEP/NCAR R1 dataset.